Activity of Vesuvio between 1800 and 1899

(after Scandone et al. 1993)

Localities mentioned in the text can be found on the topo map (240 kb gif image)

Period 1800-1899


BEGIN (d-m-y) END (d-m-y) Length (days) Type-Volume VEI VOLCANOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS
12 Aug 1804 28 Nov 1804 108 IE effusive explosive 2 On 22 May 1804, two earthquakes and smoke. On 31 Jul, decrease of the level of the water table in Resina and Torre del Greco; retreat of the sea between Torre del Greco e T. Annunziata. On 11 Aug, earthquakes felt in Resina and emission of ash, scoriae and lapilli. Since 15 Aug, a lava flow toward i Camaldoli which stops on 30 Sep. On 2 Sep, the lava flow is at i Monticelli. On the 16th, the lava stops at 0.3 mile from the royal road. A new lava flow, on 22 Nov at 0430, toward T.del Greco (Stoppa). Damage for 60000 ducati.
29 Nov 1804 11 Aug 1805 255 A Smoke until 13 Feb 1805 . On this day there is a lava outflow (Stoppa).
12 Aug 1805 19 Oct 1805 68 IE effusive explosive 2-3 On 12 Aug at 0200, explosion with lava fountains 300 palms high. Fast lava flow that makes 4 miles in 1/2 hour. At the middle of the path, it branches into 5 flows: two toward Camaldoli; one toward T. del Greco and two toward the royal road. One flow into the sea at 0945 on 13 Aug. The flows come to an halt in the evening of the 13th. From 17 until 19 Aug, a flow toward Boscotrecase. A new feeding of the flows on the 24th. On 26 and 27 Aug, explosions; on the 28th, eruptive cloud and a lava flow. On 5 Sep, new flow toward Torre del Greco. On 12 Oct, an earthquake, very high lava fountains and a fast lava flow reaches the houses of T. del Greco. On the 16th, a new flow follows the same path; it arrives to 1/2 mile from Purgatorio Church on the 17th.
20 Oct 1805 30 May 1806 222 A On 27 Jan 1806 scoria ejection. No other activity until 1 May 1806.
31 May 1806 9 Jun 1806 9 IE effusive explosive 2 Earthquake on 31 May, explosion and lava fountain at 0230. Strong explosion at 1515. On 1 Jun, at 0400, lava flows to SW and W; one toward Camaldoli travels 3.5 miles in one hour. Another flow reaches the sea near Torre del Greco. Eruptive cloud during the evening. New lava flow, 7 miles long, on 2 Jun. On the 3rd, explosive activity . Activity continues until 9 Jun. Damage in Ottaviano and Torre del Greco. Ash as far as Benevento.
10 Jun 1806 3 Sep 1809 1181 A
4 Sep 1809 5 Sep 1809 1 IE effusive 1 On 4 Sep 1809, fracture on the SE flank of the crater and lava flow into Atrio del Cavallo. (Phillips)
6 Sep 1809 10 Sep 1810 369 A
11 Sep 1810 22 Sep 1810 11 IE effusive explosive 1 Lava flow toward Resina, since 13 Sep, toward Boscotrecase and Resina. Between 11 and 22 Sep, explosive activity
23 Sep 1810 31 Dec 1811 464 A Strombolian activity on 20 Dec 1811 .
1 Jan 1812 28 Feb 1812 58 IE effusive 1 Fracture on the SE side of the cone and several flows toward Torre del Greco
1 Mar 1812 8 Oct 1813 586 A Persistent activity during 1812 and 1813. Strong explosive activity on 8-9 Aug 1813 (Baratta)
9 Oct 1813 28 Oct 1813 19 IE effusive 1 9 Oct, intracrateric lavas. On 28 Oct, small lava flow toward il Viulo (Pilla and Phillips).
29 Oct 1813 28 Feb 1814 122 IE effusive explosive 2 At 1000 on 25 Dec, tremors and rumblings. At 1400, explosion with eruptive cloud and lava toward Fosso Bianco; another flow toward Viulo; explosive activity and lava flows in Jan and Feb 1814.
1 Mar 1814 21 Dec 1817 1391 A Strong activity on 14 May 1816 with Strombolian activity and intracrateric lava. (Baratta).
22 Dec 1817 26 Dec 1817 4 IE effusive 1 On 22 Dec, fracture on the NE flank of the cone, lavas toward il Mauro and, at the SW, toward T. del Greco
27 Dec 1817 30 Nov 1819 703 A Strombolian activity since Oct 1818. On Feb 1819, lava on E flank of Gran Cono.
1 Dec 1819 31 May 1820 182 IE effusive 1-2 Since beginning of Dec 1819, lava from 6 vents on the NW side of the crater (Coutrel vent). During Jan 1820, new fracture to W and lava toward il Salvatore. Increase during Mar, Apr and May 1820.
1 Jun 1820 14 Jan 1822 592 A Activity, on 7 Oct 1821, from two vents; intermittently in Nov and Dec. On 7 Jan 1822, collapse of the Coutrel vent (Monticelli e Covelli).
15 Jan 1822 28 Feb 1822 44 IE effusive 2 On 15 Jan, opening of two vents. On 11 Feb, emission of scoriae, pumices, and smoke, earthquakes. On 22 Feb, an explosion and a lava flow
28 Feb 1822 20 Oct 1822 234 A Explosions and rumblings until Sep, when there is the opening of a new vent
21 Oct 1822 16 Nov 1822 26 FE (1822) effusive explosive 3-4 During October, lavas from the September vent. On 20 and 21 Oct, small earthquakes; on the 22nd at 0100, fire column on the crater, 2000 feet high; fracture of the cone to the E with a glowing avalanche. Outflow of lava at dawn, toward SW. After the lava emission, ash column toward SE. Decrease during the morning, and increase at 1300, with tremors and a high column, at 1600, strong explosion with emission of lava from E side. During the night, opening of new vents in the crater and on the flank toward i Camaldoli; on 23 Oct at 0100, new explosions with high eruptive column and strong tremor; collapse of part of the crater; 2 eruptive columns: white at W and dark at E . On 24 Oct, ash fall; continuing activity with decreasing intensity until 16 Nov (Monticelli, Covelli )
17 Nov 1822 1 Jul 1824 592 R
2 Jul 1824 20 Sep 1831 2636 A Strombolian activity on 2 Jul 1824 and slow filling of the crater with lava; major activity during Mar 1827; mild activity in 1828, increase during 1829
14 Aug 1831 23 Dec 1832 497 IE effusive 1-2 Earthquake on 14 Aug and intracrateric lava; outflow on 20 Aug to the SE toward Bosco; again on 20 Sep to S-SE and same during all of 1831; on 20 Nov, toward Torre del Greco; on 25 Dec, toward Resina; outflows also on 27 Jan 1832; 27 Feb 1832 (Boscotrecase and Piano delle Ginestre), 23 Jul (Ottaviano and Eremo), 8 Aug, to W, and from Oct until 15 Nov (Bosco), 16-23 Dec ( Torre del Greco)
24 Dec 1832 24 May 1833 151 A
25 May 1833 15 Jun 1833 21 IE effusive 1-2 Increasing activity on 25 May 1833; on 28 and 29 May, lava flow to Pedamentina, 1.5 mile toward Torre del Greco; on 12 Jun, two lava flows toward Torre del Greco.
16 Jun 1833 26 Nov 1833 163 A On 13 Aug 1833, two lava flow toward Torre del Greco (Phillips and Baratta)
27 Nov 1833 16 Jan 1834 50 IE effusive 1 On 27 Nov 1833, fracture at the SW base of the conelet and outflow of lava, from the 28th onwards, toward l'Eremo. New outflows on 16, 20 and 21 Dec and in Jan 1834, toward Resina and Torre del Greco. (Baratta)
17 Jan 1834 21 Aug 1834 216 A Small outflows toward Atrio, Boscoreale and Torre del Greco. Since 7 Jun 1834, lava flow toward T. Annunziata.
22 Aug 1834 2 Sep 1834 11 FE (1834) effusive explosive 3 On 23 Aug, earthquake and collapse of crater; volcanic column; on 24 Aug, 4 vents on E flank of the crater; on 28-29 Aug, a lava flow toward Poggiomarino (Caposecchi); on 28 Aug lahars.
3 Sep 1834 31 Dec 1834 119 R
1 Jan 1835 31 Dec 1838 1460 A Mild activity since Jan 1835 to 26 Jul 1835; 1 Apr 1835 , esplosions, lava fountains; Phillips reports a lava flow on 6 Mar 1838.
1 Jan 1839 3 Jan 1839 2 FE (1839) effusive explosive 2-3 Outflow on 31 Dec 1838. At dawn of 1 Jan 1839, dark eruption column, lava flow to W . Between 1 and 4 Jan, fracture of the cone to E and W, on 2 Jan high white cloud; then lava to E (Boscotrecase) and W (Canteroni); lava fountains up to 400 m, and black ash on Boscotrecase and Castellammare. After the eruption the crater was funnel-shaped with a diameter of 700 m and a depth of 285 m (Pilla, Baratta)
4 Jan 1839 19 Sep 1841 989 R Fumarolic activity.
20 Sep 1841 4 Feb 1850 3059 A Mild explosions. In Feb 1845, the conelet is visible from Naples. In the fall of 1845, the crater of 1839 is entirely filled with lava. Variable Strombolian and effusive activity..
5 Feb 1850 16 Feb 1850 11 FE (1850) effusive explosive 2 The conelet is 70 feet higher than the rim of the crater (Punta Palo, Phillips). Fracture along N side of the cone on 5 Feb 1850; rapid lava flow into Atrio del Cavallo and then to E. On 5 Feb another fracture at the base of the Cone with small lava. On 7 and 9 Feb, increasing volumes of lava flow toward il Mauro and Poggiomarino. On the 9th, dense smoke from the crater with ash-fall on T. Annunziata. Strong explosions. Decrease of activity on 10 Feb; from 12 to 15 Feb, lapilli and, on the 16th at 1230, two strong explosions. The cone collapses into two craters.
17 Feb 1850 13 Dec 1854 1760 R
14 Dec 1854 30 Apr 1855 137 A Collapse of crater on 14 Dec 1854 , formation of a funnel-shaped pit 80 m deep. Smoke in Apr 1855.
1 May 1855 27 May 1855 26 FE (1855) effusive volume =17 x 10^6 m^3 2-3 Explosion in the night of 30 Apr/1 May; lava in the crater. Opening of vents on the N side of the cone with lava emission and mild strombolian activity . Lava flow into Atrio del Cavallo toward W to Vetrana and Fosso del Faraone. During the night it reaches S. Sebastiano and Massa di Somma. New flows on 6 and 7 May reach S. Sebastiano and Somma. On 8 May, the lava flow arrives at 1/2 mile from Cercola.
28 May 1855 18 Dec 1855 204 R
19 Dec 1855 26 May 1858 889 A Collapse of the crater on 19 Dec 1855, with smoke and lapilli. During 1856-1857 intracrateric activity. Outflow on Apr 1857; new collapse on 24 Aug and new outflow on Aug1857. On 11 and 20 Oct 1857, explosions, collapse of the cone and lava fountains. (Siniscalco).
27 May 1858 12 Apr 1861 1051 IE effusive volume =120 x 10^6 m^3 2 Vents in the Piano delle Ginestre (circa 11), lava emission from several vents in different periods, until Mar or Apr of 1861. Damage for 2.760.700 lire.
13 Apr 1861 7 Dec 1861 238 A Strong earthquake on 5 Dec 1861
8 Dec 1861 31 Dec 1861 23 FE (1861) effusive mildly- explosive Lateral 3 At 9 am of 8 Dec increasing seismic activity. At 1600, fracture located 2 km from Torre del Greco opens at 290 m asl. The fracture trends ENE-SSW and extends into the sea. Conelets in the higher part of the fracture with lava flow toward Resina and Torre del Greco. Smoke and mild explosions at the crater. Damage to the buildings of Torre del Greco because of the fracture; inflation of the coast (1 m at Torre del Greco). Earthquake on 11 and 16 Dec. On that day, at 8 am, boiling of the sea 1.5 km off the coast at Torre del Greco. The same phenomenon on 17 Dec at 0900. On 17 Dec, at 1300, eruption column at the crater, also during the night of 23 Dec, ash emission lasts until 31 Dec Collected funds for damages: 352750 Lire.
1 Jan 1862 9 Feb 1864 769 R Mild activity in Jan, May, and Jun 1862 (Baratta)
10 Feb 1864 14 Nov 1867 1373 A On 10 Feb 1864, opening of the crater and strombolian activity. Rebuilding of the conelet during 1865 and intracrateric lava during 1866 and 1867 (lava fountains on 12 Nov 1867) and Mar 1868. (Baratta)
15 Nov 1867 31 May 1868 198 IE effusive explosive 1 Since Oct 1867 earthquakes, and from 8 until 12 Nov, continuous tremor. On 12 and 13 Nov, scoria emission. Since 15-11, the lava emission rapidly fills the crater, 120 m deep. Outflows in late Nov and during Dec 1867 and Jan 1868, toward SE into Piano delle Ginestre. On 26 Jan, new outflow until Feb. On 8 and 12 Mar, earthquakes and ash emission up to 1000-1600 feet. On 11 Mar, fracture on SE flank of the crater with lava emission. 11-13 Mar 1868, strong explosive activity and a fracture on the ESE flank of Gran Cono with a lava toward Boscoreale lasting 8 days.
1 Jun 1868 14 Nov 1868 166 A Strombolian activity with an outflow on 8 Nov (Baratta)
15 Nov 1868 26 Nov 1868 11 FE (1868) effusive explosive volume = 6 Ml m3 2-3 On 15 Nov, fracture on NW flank near the 1855 vents; lava flow into Fosso della Vetrana and Fosso Faraone lasting 8 days. Eruptive column particularly strong on 24 Nov.
27 Nov 1868 30 Nov1870 733 R
1 Dec 1870 12 Jan 1871 42 A
13 Jan 1871 30 Apr 1871 107 IE effusive 1 Lava outflow from N side of the cone, increasing since Mar, and during Apr new lava flows into Fosso della Vetrana near the Osservatorio. (Palmieri)
1 Mar 1871 23 Apr 1872 358 A In Oct 1871, slight collapse of the crater. On 3-4 Nov 1871, small lava flows. In Mar 1872, fracture on NW side with a few lava in the Atrio, lasting a week.
24 Apr 1872 30 Apr 1872 6 FE (1872) effusive-explosive volume =20 x 10^6 m^3 3 Since 23 Apr, seismic activity. On the evening of 24 Apr, lava flow from the active fracture (NW). At 0330 on the 26th, new fracturing of the Cone (NW) with explosion and lava. Three casualties (some sources say, more than 20) and 10 wounded in a visiting party. Another fracture on the S side of the cone and lava toward Camaldoli. Another lava flow into Fosso della Vetrana and into Fosso del Faraone, again two branches toward Piano delle Novelle and Fosso del Faraone. This lava flow reaches Massa and S. Sebastiano travelling 4-5 km in 10 hours. On 27 and 28 Apr, ash emission with ejection up to 1300 m. (Palmieri)
1 May 1872 17 Dec 1875 1325 R The crater of 1872 was 250 m deep with a volume of 17 x 10^6 m^3. Landslides during 1874 fill it to a depth of 127 m.
18 Dec 1875 15 Dec 1881 2189 A Collapse of the crater on 18 Dec 1875 with formation of a new vent in Strombolian activity. During 1878, outflow of lava along a fracture on NW side of the crater. Filling of the crater at the end of 1880. Collapse of the conelet in Dec 1881. (Palmieri)
16 Dec 1881 31 Jan 1884 776 IE effusive 1-2 Outflow from E during 1882 and 1883. On 9 Jan 1884, lava flow on NNW.
1 Feb 1884 1 May 1885 455 A
2 May 1885 1 Jul 1886 425 IE effusive 1 Two fractures toward T. Annunziata and Boscotrecase (NE and SE). A lava flow issuing from SE reaches the base of the cone and lasts all the year with increase on 28 Jul, and 12-14 Sep. From Jan until Jun 1886, similar activity, also on 4-5 Feb and from May until 1 Jul, toward Ottaviano.
2 Jul 1886 15 Apr 1887 287 A Increase of activity on 27-28 Aug 1886.
16 Apr 1887 19 Apr 1887 3 IE effusive 1 On 16 and 17 Apr, explosions and a lava flow on 18 and 19 Apr toward SE.
20 Apr 1887 30 Apr 1889 741 A Strombolian activity from Sep1887 until Nov 1888, on 24 Jul, and 11-12 Aug 1888.
1 May 1889 30 Sep 1889 152 IE effusive 1 Collapse of the crater at the beginning of May 1889, crater several hundred meters wide. Lava flow lasting until Sep. (Baratta)
1 Oct 1889 6 Jun 1891 613 A Mild activity until the end of Oct 1890, with an outflow to SE during May 1891 .
7 Jun 1891 3 Jun 1894 1092 IE effusive volume =36x 10^6 m^3 2 At 1745 on 7 Jun 1891, fracture on NNW side of the cone, and big smoke emission from the vent. New lateral vents on the N flank at 900-1000 m asl. Then other vents down to 830 m along the fracture of 1868. Building of a lava shield. Lava flowing during 1892, and forming a lava tube. On 3 Jun 1894, end of the external flow and filling of the crater, 200 m deep. The lava shield was called Colle Margherita. (Baratta)
4 Jun 1894 2 Jul 1895 393 A Rupturing of the cone on 24 May 1895, with lava flow into Atrio; At the beginning of Jul 1895, the conelet is 150 m higher than the crater rim (Baratta)
3 Jul 1895 7 Sep 1899 1527 IE effusive volume =50 x 10^6 m^3 2 On 3 Jul 1895 fracturing of the WNW side of the cone with new vent at 1185, 1100, 900 and 750 m asl. Lava flow from the lower vents into Fosso della Vetrana. Lava emission continues during all of the year. Collapse of the conelet on 3-4 Jul 1895. In Nov 1895, the crater is 250 m deep. During Sep 1897, the depth of the crater decreases by 100 m due to landslides. At the beginning of Jul 1898, the crater is 60 m deep. The lava shield formed during this period is called Colle Umberto.

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